PHYSICS – Key Formulae and Notations of Current Electricity

Students will find the section on Electricity & Magnetism the most difficult one in the entire Physics Syllabus, as compared to other sections. This section consists of the following topics:

  • static electricity
  • current electricity
  • D.C. circuits
  • practical electricity
  • magnetism
  • electromagnetism
  • electromagnetic induction

The document below summarises the key formulae and notations in Current Electricity. Students are expected to be familiarised with these formulae and notations, as students very often need to apply these concepts in their examination, usually in calculation. Please note that the concepts of this topic is not covered in the document below, but only the key formulae and notations.

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Current Electricity Summary

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS – Sketching Graphs of Modulus Functions

In assessments, candidates taking Additional Mathematics are often required to sketch Graphs of Modulus Functions. The document attached summarises the procedures to sketch a graph of a modulus function.

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Sketching Graphs of Modulus Functions

For queries / further requests / assistance (academic matters at GCE ‘O’ Level), you may email us at 

SOCIAL STUDIES – Multi-Ethnic Conflicts in Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland

This topic is taught in Secondary 3 Social Studies.

After the completion of this topic, students will appreciate that the causes of the conflicts in the two societies are different, hence students must be able to describe and explain all the factors (9 in total, for both case studies) that ultimately lead to the conflict. This is very important, as students need to be familiarised with skills to construct explanations so as to score well for Structured Essay Questions.

You may email us your answer at, and we will provide comments for your answer, based on the Level of Response Mark Scheme.

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SEQ – Multi-Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka

SEQ – Multi-Ethnic Conflict in Northern Ireland

BIOLOGY – Practice Question on Hormones

‘Hormones’ is a topic that is likely to be covered in Secondary 4 Biology / Science (Biology). Students taking Biology are required to relate the concepts learnt in this topic to the topic ‘Homeostasis’. Emphasis will be placed in the role of two hormones (specifically insulin and glucagon) in the regulation of blood glucose level.

Students may find this topic relatively easy, as the content for this topic is relatively ‘light’. The document below contain a specimen practice questions, that requires students to simply recall. In examination, do expect questions that require inference of data.

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Hormones – Practice Question 1

MATHEMATICS – Preparing Singapore-Cambridge GCE ‘O’ Level Mathematics Papers

The date for Singapore-Cambridge GCE ‘O’ Level Examination 2015 are:

  • Paper 1: 19 October 2015 (2.30pm – 4.30pm)
  • Paper 2: 22 October 2015 (2.30pm – 5pm)

After deeper analysis of the coverage of the syllabus, there are 44 small topics that can be assessed in examinations. These topics are very small such that it will not be very difficult for students to revise 15 topics a day, which means that revision can be completed within 3 days. The list of topics can be found in the Curriculum Outline in the Mathematics Page.

Phase 1: Revision

For this phase, you will need a total of 11 sheets of blank paper. Fold each paper into half and allocate half page for each small topic as specified in our Curriculum Outline. On the papers, write down the important points of the topic (e.g. formulae, diagrams, description). Be sure to leave some spaces for further addition of content into the summary.

This phase should be done by Term 2 Week 10.

Phase 2: Practice

Right after the end of the Mother Tongue Mid-year paper (or earlier if possible, based on your own judgement and ability), practice one paper (Paper 1 and Paper 2, on each other day) every day. Practice your yearly Ten-Years Series (up to 2008). These past-year papers can also be sourced on-line, or from your teachers. Mathematics depends on constant revision.

After attempting those papers, mark the papers yourself, and see how you score. Keep a record of your scores and the topics that you are weaker at.

This should stop one week before the start of GCE ‘O’ Level (the October-November period, not the start of the Mathematics Papers).

Phase 3: Review

After Phase 2, review all the papers (as well as Preliminary Examinations) that you had done again. Identify the points that you need to take extra caution and write in the blank spaces of the notes that you had previously written in Phase 1. This should be completed at least two days before the examination.

Print out the summary from our website and tally with your notes to see whether you have any more content to add on to your notes.

Phase 4: Revise

Study the notes that you have written from Phase 1 to Phase 3 and the summary notes from Horizon Education. Your teacher may also provide with you a set of comprehensive notes that you may find useful.

By following the phases, weaker students should be able to score at least a merit or students of higher ability should be able to score distinction.

SOCIAL STUDIES – Structured Essay Question on Multi-Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka

Practice Structured-Essay Question: Multi-Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka

Total: 20 marks

Explain how each of the following lead to the Multi-Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka.

  1. Citizenship Rights
  2. ‘Singhala-Only’ Policy
  3. University Admission Criteria
  4. Resettlement

Which one do you think is more significant? Explain your answer.

Email us your answer at and we will provide comment for your answer.